||Utah's African-American Voices|
Script: Utah's African-American Voices
1. OPENING SEQUENCE - SLOW MOVING DISSOLVES OF UTAH'S AFRICAN- AMERICAN PEOPLE, PHOTOGRAPHS AND VOICES RELATING THE CIRCUMSTANCES AS TO WHY THEY LIVE(D) IN UTAH. THIS SERIES OF "MEMORIES" WILL BE SUPER-IMPOSED OVER A LOCAL GROUP OF GOSPEL SINGERS.
06:00:55 (6A) Billy Mason: "I've lived here over 30 years, came to visit mother and decided not to leave."
07:02:26 (7A) Eva Sexton: "There wasn't any work for Blacks. The only thing they could do was work on the RR or be shoe shine boys. That's all a Black could do in SL. I hated it."
08:19:00 (8A) Lakissha Robinson: "I really appreciated growing up here. I grew up at Fort Douglas - lots of diversity."
02:15:31 (2) Alberta Henry: "Dullest place, no Blacks." or 02:19:12 "Came in '47 - Lord sent me to work, found job with kids."
04:08:03 (4) Pastor Davis: "I came in 1972 for graduate school. Filling in as Pastor and still here 20 years later."
05:08:55 (5) Ike Spencer: "First got here - came from 99% Black area in CA. This was the whitest place I'd ever been."
06:01:52 (6) Jackie Thompson: "SLC is a beautiful place to live and raise kids."
20:21:35 (20) Betty Sawyer: "Arrived in the evening - took 2 weeks to find another Black."
2. TITLE: UTAH'S AFRICAN-AMERICAN VOICES
3. GENERIC SHOTS OF UTAH
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Utah's African-American voices, although few in number, influenced the course of Utah history since the early 1800's. Now, some 200 years later, as Utah prepares for it's millennial milestone, a celebration of its immigrant people moves to the forefront. Utah's growing cultural diversity is richly woven yet densely layered from its oppressive past to contributions of the present and opportunities for the future.
4. DISSOLVE TO PIONEER/HISTORICAL FOOTAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "While African-American fur-trappers and explorers roamed the mountains and valleys of Utah in the early 1800's, it wasn't until 1947 with Brigham Young's advance party, that African-Americans permanently settled in Utah."
5. BRIGHAM YOUNG MONUMENT
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Green Flake, Hark Lay and Oscar Crosby were brought to Utah as slaves of southern Mormons. Three years later, African-Americans living in Utah numbered 60 - the majority as slaves."
6. PHOTO OF BRIGHAM YOUNG
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Although Brigham Young did not personally own slaves, he believed that Black people descended from the seed of Canaan, and the Lord had designated them to occupy the position of "servant of servants. Despite this belief, Brigham Young was involved in freeing Green Flake, a pioneer who had traveled back and forth across the plains with him in 1847 and 1848."
7. CIVIL WAR FOOTAGE/PHOTOS - HISTORICAL LDS PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Like slaves throughout the United States, Utah's African-Americans gained their freedom during the course of the Civil War. Latter-day Saint leaders were of the opinion that the Civil War was the Lord's revenge for the death of Joseph Smith and the injustices placed upon the Saints by the United States Government. Mormons also believed that zealots in the North and South were responsible for the loss of lives and the destruction of the Union."
8. PHOTO OF BRIGHAM YOUNG
BRIGHAM YOUNG VOICE OVER: "One portion of the country wish to raise their negroes as black slaves, and the other portion wish to free them. Who cares? I should never fight one moment about it - for the cause of human improvement is not in the least advanced by the dreadful war.....Ham will continue to be the servant of servant, as the Lord has decreed, until the curse is removed. -- Brigham Young."
9. HISTORICAL PHOTO
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Although the era for slavery in Utah legally ended in the spring of 1862, racial injustice was only just beginning."
10. DISSOLVE TO TRAIN - TRANSCONTINENTAL FOOTAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "In 1869, with the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the national transportation network provided employment opportunities and incentives for African- Americans to venture out West. This expanding economic frontier served as a major impetus for increasing Utah's Black population."
11. HISTORICAL MILITARY PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "One major expansion to Utah's African-American population was due to the military. Between 1890 and 1900, members of the Ninth Cavalry and Twenty- fourth Infantry served at military posts in Utah. These soldiers were called Buffalo Soldiers." 12. DR. RON COLEMAN WITH HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 01:03:44 (1)
DR. COLEMAN ON CAMERA: 01:03:44 (1) "...Army built Ft. Duchesne - Buffalo Soldiers. Full regiment of 24th based at Ft. Douglas as reward for service - plum assignment.
01:06:40 (1) "... fall of 1896, 400 plus soldiers arrived and impacted small AA community already here....soldiers were happy.
01:07:54 (1) "existing AA community thrilled with enlarged social community - outstanding band..."
13. HISTORICAL PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "The Buffalo Soldier experience at Fort Douglas was significant in that it was the first time in history the U.S. Army had stationed a large Black unit in an area so close to an existing Black and white population."
Frankie Price - 10:01:24 (10B) "My grandfather was a Buffalo Soldier - 1896, Ft. Douglas. My mother was 1st Black baby born at Ft. Douglas."
Steven B. Kelly - 10:14:45 (10B) "Buffalo Soldiers came to Utah to fight Indians, protect settlers - they were some of best horsemen in military. My great-grandfather, Alfred Rucker was a Buffalo Soldier in 1896."
15. FORT DOUGLAS FOOTAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Although this was considered an ideal location and plum assignment for the Buffalo Soldier, many local residents did not share the same enthusiasm."
16. DR. RON COLEMAN ON CAMERA - 01:05:40 (1)
DR. RON COLEMAN ON CAMERA: "..unfortunately some residents were opposed - it was LDS and non-LDS...the location of Fort Douglas and So. Temple would bring drunken AA soldiers in contact with whites.."
17. PHOTOS OF FT. DOUGLAS OR SOLDIERS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "In 1899 the soldiers of the 24th Infantry were reassigned to the regret of some residents in the area."
18. SL TRIBUNE ARTICLE
TRIBUNE SPOKESPERSON "General regret is felt in the city over the leaving of the popular officers of the twenty-fourth. They have endeared themselves to many friends and were favorites in society. - Salt Lake Tribune, April 1, 1899."
19. DISSOLVE TO MOVING TRAIN (EARLY 1900'S)
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "While Utah's African-American population grew very slowly, few would disagree that the coming of the railroad unlocked Utah - changing a desert vastness into a national highway.
20. TRAIN PHOTOS SHOWING PORTERS, WAITERS, ETC.
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "As Utah became a hub in the western railroad system, employment opportunities afforded new economic prosperity for African-Americans. Word of mouth, newspapers and fliers advertising porter, waiter and chef jobs spread far and wide.
21. FANTLEY JONES PHOTOS
FANTLEY JONES VOICE OVER: "My cousin wrote home and told me I could make a lot of money out here waiting tables. Said he'd send me a pass to Kansas City - that was as far as the line would go. So, I sold a calf for $35, bought my ticket to Kansas City, picked up the pass and came out to Utah. Forty years later I retired as the head chef for the Union Pacific Railroad. -- Fantley Jones"
21A. FLORENCE LAWRENCE - 16:03:47 (16)
FLORENCE LAWRENCE ON CAMERA: "My husband was born in ID, came here and worked at arms plant and then was a chef on RR...out 7 days at a time - worked until death."
22. RAILROAD HISTORICAL PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "With the influx of African-American railroad workers - and because many white-owned services were barred to Blacks, a few opportunities abounded for new hotels, clubs and restaurant facilities - especially near the rail station - in particular, Ogden's 25th Street.
Alberta Henry - 02:15:31 (2) "No place to go - just porters and waiters club. That was where Blacks went, music, cards, dance - the only place to socialize."
Henry Sexton - 07:14:07 (7) "...a club across from the UP depot where Black would meet to drink and dance and also one in Ogden - that was the height of nightclub activity until 1950."
Betty Moore - 23:12:23 (23) "25th Street in the late 20's was alive, vibrant, everything going on - it was an interesting place."
Marguerite Horton - 04:03:45 (4B) "My first impression - everything centered in Ogden on 25th st. There were Black restaurants, shops, own business and churches."
Betty Moore - 23:13:07 (23) "...had businesses there - good sturdy businesses, porters and waiters club - jam sessions and everyone would come."
24. HISTORICAL PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "As Utah's African-American community grew, so too did the need for Black-owned newspapers, and political, social, and fraternal organizations."
25. DORIS FRYE TESTIMONIAL
- 18:10:25 (18) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "We had to have our own social life here because we were Black and ostracized as Blacks and set aside. It was a misfortune in a way, but it has made people stronger. We had clubs of women to keep busy - almost non-existent now as other opportunities came along."
26. EVA SEXTON TESTIMONIAL
-07:09:40 (7A) EVA SEXTON ON CAMERA: "In 1946 Henry came out of the service and we came back to SLC and we couldn't go anywhere and it was irritating. You couldn't be seen with white people. So, what we did was set up a club - instead of being embarrassed to go where we wouldn't be served, we decided to do our own cooking. We would go from house to house and have club meetings. The 4-5's came out of it and we would go on picnics and horseback riding to entertain ourselves."
27. HENRY SEXTON - 07:11:30 (7)
HENRY SEXTON ON CAMERA: "For years we worked hard to have a formal for the Black community. We could go to the Rainbow Rendevu only as a private party, but not during regular hours. But, we could rent it for the night for private parties."
28. HISTORICAL PHOTOS - CHURCHES
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Deeply woven into the African-American experience in Utah, the Black religious institutions often provided stability and a strong sense of community. In the late 1800's the first African-American church was established in Utah - the Trinity African Methodist Episcopal Church. Shortly afterward, Calvary Baptist Church was founded followed by Wall Street Baptist Church in Ogden."
29. REVEREND FRANCE DAVIS
- 04:11:11 (4) REVEREND DAVIS: "There are 23 African-American churches in Utah - all play similar roles. This is a mother church... They serve people within their community and do a tremendous job. The focus depends on the Pastor, but meeting needs of people is the important issue."
REVEREND DAVIS CONT: "For African-Americans, the only place of freedom of expression is the AA church. They are in charge. They have input to be free in whatever expressions they choose."
30. SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON
- 01:14:48 (1A) SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON ON CAMERA: "The role of the church in this AA community has been a religious role and a societal role and political and educational role. It has remained akin to church of African community of old - it is the center of the community."
31. DORIS FRYE
- 17:08:50 (17) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "Pastor Davis has brought us out of bitterness. Without Calvary Baptist church, our race would've been doomed in SL because it's our only social life and interaction with each other."
32. MUSIC - GOSPEL SINGERS
(14:18:19) (14) 33. REVEREND DAVIS - 04:13:30 (4) REVEREND DAVIS ON CAMERA: "Music is religious expression and conversation. Dual language - code language for communicating. "Swing Low" = a ride to heaven and getting out of slavery. Music relates the spiritual experience as well as how we deal with life and its issues."
34. SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON
- 01:16:31 (1A) SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON ON CAMERA: "The role of music in AA church is historically based and when you think of church you think music. It's another ministry. There's the music ministry to prepare your heart and mind for the word. Music brings people in and prepares them for what's to come."
35. JACKIE THOMPSON
- 06:11:29 (6) JACKIE THOMPSON ON CAMERA: "Music is universal language of the heart, celebration by all people. We have wonderful gospel, jazz, blues. Music can touch the heart - when we come together, you see the human family come together."
36. HISTORICAL PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "For Utah's African Americans, employment opportunities were often limited or non-existent. Work, other than with the railroad, often involved positions in domestic and personal services."
37. ALBERTA HENRY ON CAMERA
- 02:19:12 (2) ALBERTA HENRY ON CAMERA: "I came in Aug of '49. The Lord sent me here to do work. Employment office said they didn't hire colored. I found one that had kids so I called Mrs. Sandack. Got dressed up for interview. Interviewed with Mrs. S. - told her I love to clean and that her house was dirty. It was the best job."
38. DORIS FRYE
- 17:14:35 (17) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "My father got a job working for the city underground toilets. My father worked in the men's toilets and we worked on the ladies side. He worked there to make a go of it for his family. That was his main job until he retired."
39. HENRY SEXTON
- 07:09:11 (7) HENRY SEXTON ON CAMERA: "Trying to find a job was difficult. I grew up washing cars and shining shoes at barber shops."
40. EVA SEXTON
- 07:03:23 (7a) EVA SEXTON ON CAMERA: "What I did was decide that I had to do something for the few days I was here. I didn't intend to stay so I looked in the paper and saw where they needed a bookstore cashier. I went and walked in black and the manager was trying to tell me he couldn't hire me. There was a white boy who said why don't you give her a chance and the man hired me and I stayed for one year."
41. HISTORICAL PHOTOS - MOVING TRAIN
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "To examine the pattern of discrimination in Utah, is to discover it is a microcosm of Black history in the United States. African-Americans came West for the same reasons that whites migrated West. They wanted better opportunities in housing, jobs, and, more importantly, greater freedom from racial discrimination. This, unfortunately, was not what they found."
42. DORIS FRYE
17:24:00 (17) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "We went to dances. Blacks had their own fun. If we wanted to go to a public dance hall, we could stand and watch but not dance so we didn't attend. Sometimes traveling bands would play for whites and the next night they'd play for the B people and so we made it alright."
43. HENRY SEXTON
- 07:06:44 (7) HENRY SEXTON ON CAMERA: "I can remember the theaters - we sat in the balcony, one floor we sat in front close to the screen."
44. DORIS FRYE
18:08:56 (18) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "Blacks had to sit in the balcony so far up they called it nigger heaven and you couldn't hear or see."
45. BETTY MOORE
22:23:39 (22) BETTY MOORE ON CAMERA:
"We couldn't sit where we wanted in movie theaters. My dad was a tax payer, but we couldn't take advantage of municipal facilities."
46. FLORENCE LAWRENCE
16:06:59 (16) FLORENCE LAWRENCE ON CAMERA: "We would go to Salt Air - lots of prejudice, couldn't go swimming or into the pavilions - same as Lagoon and in hotels, restaurants. The barrier hadn't been broken down and you just weren't allowed to go those places."
"We didn't question it as kids because that was just the way it was. Sometimes you don't miss what you've never had and so we compensated with other things."
"For recreation, if they wanted to go rollerskating it had to be after hours. So that meant we were out on the roads late so they stated 10-12 or 11-1. It was a bad time. They needed the recreation, yet they couldn't go during regular times."
47. JIM GILLESPIE
21:16:35 (21) JIM GILLESPIE ON CAMERA: "There were 20 trains and ___ troop trains everyday - got off on 25th Street. Black people walked on the south side of the street and whites on the north. No one told them to, but they just did."
48. HAFB HISTORICAL FOOTAGE NARRATOR VOICE OVER:
"With World War II the African-American population increased as many found new opportunities working for the military installations and defense plants."
49. JIM GILLESPIE
22:01:18 - (22) NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Most Blacks with defense jobs worked at HAFB, the Defense Depot or Dugway Proving Grounds. These jobs were among the better jobs available to African- Americans."
50. IRA HORTON
03:01:31 (3B) IRA HORTON ON CAMERA: "We were drafted - selected to be in UT. We came by train. Regular troop movement. Mostly all black. We came here and thought it was fascinating - most of us stayed here."
51. HISTORICAL PHOTOS/FOOTAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Prior to the signing of the Civil Rights Bill of 1964, African-Americans in Utah were excluded from participating in the general social and cultural life of the times. A number of new social clubs were organized between 1930 and 1950 to meet the social needs of the Black community. African-Americans also founded community centers for gatherings and community meetings."
52. HISTORICAL PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "One of the paradoxes of the Black-white relationship lies in the entertainment field. Whites flocked to hear Black artists yet insisted Blacks stand outside the ballrooms of Lagoon, Saltair, and the Rainbow Gardens to hear the music of their fellow Blacks. Yet, ever resourceful, Utah's African-Americans found a way to hear the great music - up close."
53. HENRY SEXTON
- 07:19:25 (7) HENRY SEXTON ON CAMERA: "At Lagoon, for music we had to stand in the doorway, but at LaTanya we had afterhours jam sessions. I would rent a Limo and get the musicians - Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Tommy Dorsey and bring them to our club to jam all night."
54. BETTY MOORE
- 23:14:30 BETTY MOORE ON CAMERA: "My life growing up in Ogden was unique. Some of the performers would stop here on the way - Duke Ellington. Mrs. Ellington came to our home and my mom fed her cherry pie. We went to the Orphium theater and sat in box seats Mrs. Ellington provided for us."
55. LAGOON, RAINBOW RENDEVU PHOTOS - ROBERT FREED
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Then in the late 1940's, a breakthrough occurred thanks to the efforts of a prominent leader in civil rights. Robert E. Freed, part owner of Lagoon and later the Rainbow Gardens, fully opened all facilities to Blacks."
56. HENRY SEXTON
07:21:14 (7) HENRY SEXTON ON CAMERA: "Robert Freed was a champion of civil rights - a great liberal. Allowed us to participate at Lagoon and that was a joy."
57. HISTORICAL PHOTOS/FORM 30 R.E. CLAUSE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Other areas of equal opportunity, however were not moving along quite as successfully. Restrictive clauses in real estate contracts were common to keep African-Americans from purchasing homes or renting apartments in many areas of Salt Lake and Weber counties - even after the Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional."
58. ALBERTA HENRY
02:22:51 (2) ALBERTA HENRY ON CAMERA: "We couldn't buy houses anywhere and RE agents only showed us central city."
59. JIM GILLESPIE
21:22:34 (21) JIM GILLESPIE ON CAMERA: "You'd see in the newspaper "house for sale - nice location for porters or waiters". Most Blacks lived between 24th - 30th St. West of Grant and still Blacks live in ___. Very few Blacks have moved out of area. If you want a house you go to RE man. RE man tells Blacks where to live. Blacks still live in area with Black people and I don't see anything wrong with it. But, I don't want a RE agent telling me where to live."
60. TYRON MEDLEY
02:15:48 (2A) TYRON MEDLEY ON CAMERA: "At the U, I was looking for a place to rent and we got the door slammed in our face and were told the place was already rented. We went down the street and made a phone call and were told it was available."
61. NAACP SIGNAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Throughout the years, local chapters of the NAACP have worked diligently in the struggle for human rights."
62. JIM GILLESPIE
21:24:21 (21) JIM GILLESPIE ON CAMERA: "As president of NAACP, one of my accomplishments I'm proud of - we called a meeting and press showed up. We said no one should buy in store without Black employees. Most every large store ended up hiring Blacks because of boycott."
63. CIVIL RIGHTS PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Although change was gradual, events paving the way for passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Bill were evident throughout the country."
64. BETTY MOORE
23:18:26 BETTY MOORE ON CAMERA: "Things opened up gradually since '54 when schools desegregated. People began to think more. On the whole it was during the revolution where our youngsters were marching for rights and beaten and hosed down - those were things that changed. And the whole American community looked at those things and said we can't have this in our country."
65. JEAN TRACY
11:04:11 (11A) JEAN TRACY ON CAMERA: "Growing up in Selma in the 50's. When I was 12 years old MLK would come to speak at churches. My family was very involved in civil rights movement. I had the opportunity to participate in MLK march, cut school, marched 18 miles. My mother wasn't happy I cut school, but later I realized it was important for me to go because MLK was instrumental in helping to make us who we are."
66. BILLY MASON
06:08:00 (6A) BILLY MASON ON CAMERA: "Back in the 60's I worked a lot of picket lines. We couldn't go bowling so we picketed the bowling allies and then I helped all the causes - whatever the cause is, I'm behind it 100%."
67. RECONCILIATION DAY
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "In 1998, on the anniversary of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, several of Utah's religious leaders and citizens gathered for a day of reconciliation. A day of forgiveness for the indignities of the past."
68. REVEREND FRANCE DAVIS
04:12:10 (4) REVEREND DAVIS ON CAMERA: "Recently on 4/4, I and others from various churches planned and carried out a Day of Reconciliation. ...last lynching in the West. Robert Marshall was accused of shooting a guard, never tried and no legal avenues to prove....the day was a marvelous day to mark grave and remind us of where we have come as AA."
69. DR. LARRY GERLACH
09:09:44 (9) DR. GERLACH ON CAMERA: "The Day of Reconciliation was powerful and very important for those who participated in it. Unfortunately many were unconcerned and hostile to the event. People today are still indifferent to the issue of race and don't want to talk about it and it makes resolving racism plaguing our society difficult."
70. MARTIN LUTHER KING PHOTO
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Over time, incidents of racial injustice toward African-Americans become snapshots in the mind of the horrible things that have cut to the heart."
71. DORIS FRYE
18:07:29 DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "Hope for the future...keep on growing..making strides ahead. Progress has made things keep going. You fight progress, you fall back and don't make progress. So, I'm happy to see progress in the state of Utah."
72. BETTY MOORE
22:28:00 (22) BETTY MOORE ON CAMERA: "I hear people in Jewish community say never again will they suffer the Holocaust. And I say for AA community, the country my people helped to build, I say never will we go back to the days before MLK and days from late 20's to 60's. Never again will we go back."
NARRATOR VOICE OVER:
"From oppression to opportunity. These national and local African-American heros put their lives on the line hoping to pave a better life for the next generation."
74. TYRON MEDLEY
02:17:14 (2A) TYRON MEDLEY ON CAMERA: "I'm a strong believer in history and without question I am the beneficiary in this state of those civil rights workers who plowed the way - Alberta, Albert. I hope they understand I appreciate what they did to pave the way for me. I hope at the end of my judgeship, my track record as judge will be such that when AA are screened for judge it won't be so strange. I can tell you it's not easy being the first and only AA judge in the state. I hope my career will inspire others and hope it will sensitize others. There is nothing AA can't do."
75. LAKISSHA ROBINSON
08:19:08 (8A) LAKISSHA ROBINSON ON CAMERA: "No doubt our ancestors made opportunities for us. I wouldn't be at the U in 1998 if it wasn't for Blacks doing Brown vs. Board of Education and desegregate schools."
76. HISTORICAL ARTICLES/PHOTOS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "On June 9, 1978, the world forever changed - African- American males in the LDS church were allowed the right to hold the Priesthood. From that point on, all worthy males, regardless of race, could enjoy full benefits of the religion."
77. DARIUS GRAY ON CAMERA
78. DR. RON COLEMAN
(01:17:21) (1) DR. RON COLEMAN ON CAMERA: "At the time I thought the impact of the revelation was most important for AA saints and had impact for future race relations in Utah. I thought much of the prejudice was in part shaped by this religious practice and this impacted secular and spiritual relations. The church is a universal church so the number of people of color has grown rapidly. I think full acceptance has led to lessening of barriers in terms of interaction of LDS and AA community. There's more familiarity and interaction now since the revelation and lessened tensions that prior existed. This has made this area much more attractive to AA to come to area. There's more openness to interact. There's much progress - more to go, but we've come further than I would've thought 20 years ago."
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "As we approach the 21th century racism both covert and overt still exists in the hearts and minds of many Utahns. African-Americans and other minorities have come a long way - struggling for the basics of freedom. Understanding and appreciating our cultural diversity through avenues of education and celebration bring us together as humankind - equal partners living on planet Earth."
80. DENISE LILLY TEACHING CLASS
04:08:58 (4A) DENISE LILLY IN FRONT OF CLASS: "Remember I told you that what I was growing up I was embarrassed to hear about slaves. The women with their hair all tied up, babes underarms, and I thought why? I don't want to be connected with that. But as I looked at Roots, I began to know that I came from some very strong people and you can tell by my personality now that I am still a very strong person. I came from people who lived through several generations of slavery."
"AA history is American history - it is your history."
81. DR. GRACE SAWYER JONES
(07:07:30) 7B) DR. JONES ON CAMERA: "When you set the table for education, you set it to include all perspectives. It must include all colors, genders, different lifestyles, and if we do that it will be the premiere to real education to serve the global community. We all need to be heard, not just be heard."
81A. JUNETEENTH FOOTAGE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Celebrating freedom - especially for African- Americans, has become a large, annual event throughout the country."
81B. BETTY SAWYER ON CAMERA
21:07:37 (21) BETTY SAWYER: "In Utah we celebrate Juneteenth - celebration of the emancipation. (story in Texas) Spread across the country. In Utah we celebrate by communities - filled with entertainment, tradional, national talent, local, family reunions, vendors, info booth., etc."
> 82. FOOTAGE OF CHILDREN
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "For children in the African-American community, many keys exist to unlock a future of success. One of these is through a mentoring program."
83. ERICA HOUSTON
03:03:31 (3A) ERICA HOUSTON ON CAMERA: "My mom and dad and teachers have helped me through the years - mom has always encouraged what I wanted to do."
"I graduate from Highland and then off to Savanna for art preservation."
"I got a 5 year scholarship that pays for room and board."
"I am going to try to be a good influence and a mentor and have kids look up to me. If someone is interested in art I will help them get started. I will try the best I can and try not to make mistakes. Think about my actions before I do them."
84. IKE SPENCER
05:24:50 (5) IKE SPENCER ON CAMERA: "I would say as AA here, our success depends on the success of our kids. If they don't succeed, we don't either."
85. SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON
01:24:34 SHAUNA GRAVES ROBERTSON ON CAMERA: "The future for AA is in the hands of AA community and it looks bright because I know we are responsible and accountable. Kids get an education and have mentors."
86. BETTY SAWYER
21:10:49 (21) BETTY SAWYER ON CAMERA: "As we look at challenge of kids, we need to keep hope alive. Our challenge is to provide leadership for kids - because there's a divide between civil rights of the 60's and today. We need to help them become leaders, talk to them, give them opportunities to be successful. Regardless of the obstacle they can change it and be successful in whatever they do."
87. GENERIC SHOTS OF KIDS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Without question, today's African-American community is small, vibrant, strong, assertive and dynamic - yet growing thanks to new found professional opportunities."
88. DR. GRACE SAWYER JONES
07:05:57 (7B) DR. GRACE SAWYER JONES ON CAMERA: "There are few Blacks to come to a growing support system that says it's alright to be here. The politics of race would lead you to say Utah and its demographics doesn't work. That's what I asked before coming and they said we know there is race and it matters but what we are confronted with is ignorance."
89. ALTHEA DeBRULE
01:10:19 1B) ALTHEA DEBRULE ON CAMERA: "I think the opportunities for Black in Utah are unlimited. This state surpasses others in ability to be entrepreneurial - to do something different. You don't have to be held back by color or gender."
90. JEAN TRACY
(11:09:25ish) (11A) JEAN TRACY ON CAMERA: "There are challenges and positive opportunities to do things here because we are such a small community. In Atlanta I would just be a number, here I have a voice."
91. GENERIC SHOTS OF KIDS
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "Today's young people in the African-American community face challenges and peer pressures - much like any other young person. The problems, however, often stem from the lack of accessible role models."
92. LAKISSHA ROBINSON
08:17:20 (8A) LAKISSHA ROBINSON ON CAMERA: "I think young people have problems like anywhere else. Here we don't have as much of a drug problem. For young people, the hardest thing is finding a cultural identity because the black community is so small."
93. HARRY RENFLO
09:09:25 (9A) HARRY RENFLO ON CAMERA: "I think it's really difficult for Black kids here because there are so few role models and so few successful Blacks to emulate. And the ones who are don't seem to be involved as much because they are busy."
94. PHOTOS OF ATHLETES
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "The visibility of African-Americans in sports at the Collegiate and professional level develops a familiarity on the part of white Utahns with a few African-American athletes as celebrities."
95. RON COLEMAN ON CAMERA
02:00:48 (2) RON COLEMAN ON CAMERA: "I think since the early 60's, the AA athletes at collegiate and professional level have had impact on Utahns in terms of acceptance of AA. The success of teams in respective communities becomes the vehicle non-AA are accquainted with AA. In our community, the athletes are celebrities - nationally as well. Athletics is a wonderful vehicle for making AA more acceptable but we need to go further on a day to day basis."
96. DR. LARRY GERLACH ON CAMERA
09:13:59 (9) DR. GERLACH ON CAMERA: "The dominance of AA as athletes and performers reinforces the long-standing racial stereotypes - that physical characteristics make them more suitable for sport. The AA community - Black intellectuals need to discuss the over emphasizing of sports - it's having a negative impact."
96A. TYRON MEDLEY ON CAMERA
02:05:22 (2A) TYRON MEDLEY ON CAMERA: "Certainly there is a double edged sword - athletics have provided people of color opportunity - and I am proud of my athletic roots and my family made me a secure individual. But there are perceptions that exist that prohibit achievement of AA because they get pigeon-holed into dancing, or music or athletics. But I think the sky is the limit."
97. HARRY RENFLO
09:21:59 (9A) HARRY RENFLO ON CAMERA: "As far as role models are concerned, too many Black kids pick an entertainer or athlete because of the financial rewards. I had a friend who played for the Vikings and he wouldn't give an autograph until the kids came back with autographs from their parents, minister, etc. He felt role models were parents, not the entertainers. That left such a lasting impression on me."
98. IKE SPENCER
05:08:09 IKE SPENCER ON CAMERA: "It helps to be in an environment as a role model to all students - not just AA kids. There's a divided line because we don't have the interaction."
99. RICK LAWRENCE
08:52:02 (8AA) RICK LAWRENCE ON CAMERA: "I'm in this business to help younger Black brothers - that it's a good job and good to be on the other side. Create a better environment for all of us. I'm sure there are a lot of Black kids out there who don't believe the police will help them no matter what color they are, and that's just a myth. We're here to help everyone. I don't want to see the future use race as an excuse and I won't teach my kids to use it. Accept me as I am. The best thing for future is to judge person for who they are. They are not born with racism, it is taught."
100. TYRON MEDLEY
02:09:05 (2A) TYRON MEDLEY ON CAMERA: "I'm not a doomsayer of the youth of GEN X. They are facing different challenges than I had - distractions like drugs. While those issues were in my youth, they are larger now. In particular in the AA community, there are strong families and we will do well in the long run, but it's going to be important to focus on strong values and to instill in them that they can accomplish what they want."
101. WHITNEY HARRIS
19:05:20 (19) WHITNEY HARRIS ON CAMERA: "I think we're better than most people see - Gen X. Kids are doing great and we'll have a great future."
102. DAJON LANG
19:14:44 (19) DAJON LANG ON CAMERA: "Some kids have negative attitude toward life and feel someone's holding them back. I feel that if you want to achieve something you will and can."
103. TYSON READY
20:04:35 (20) TYSON READY ON CAMERA: "For the next generation, anything is possible if you put your mind to it."
104. RICK LAWRENCE
08:43:38 (8AA) RICK LAWRENCE ON CAMERA:
"The success of a child is determined by the parents. If parents stay focused on the child - learn who the friends are, what interests the kid has. Stay involved."
105. JACKIE THOMPSON
06:10:08 (6) JACKIE THOMPSON ON CAMERA: "For all students to move into future - its takes a whole village to raise a child (African proverb). Have high expectations. They have wings and can soar if we provide opportunities and accommodation for success."
106. TRANSITION FOR WRAP UP
107. GENERIC SHOTS OF PEOPLE
NARRATOR VOICE OVER: "The increasing diversity of Utah is to be welcomed and embraced - but it accentuates a growing problem. There is seemingly no common social or cultural fabric to bind us together. It is hoped that as we approach the 21st century we can embrace diversity - hand in hand, as Americans - as the people of Utah."
108. JACKIE THOMPSON
06:13:49 (6) JACKIE THOMPSON ON CAMERA: "My hope would be to value each child in the words of Martin Luther King and judge them not by their skin color but by the greatness within. When we recognize this we will treat them equally."
109. JEAN TRACY
11:16:33 (11A) JEAN TRACY ON CAMERA: "Kids don't see color, they see people, friends."
110. EVA SEXTON
08:06:19 (8A) EVA SEXTON ON CAMERA: "My mother said to me. Honey, I don't know what's going to happen to you. So, I say the same thing. I don't know what's going to happen to these children. But, the generations change year after year and you just don't know. Yes, I feel good about things that are happening to Blacks now. But as far as when I'm gone, I'm looking for great things to happen as far as color line. Sometimes I don't think there will be a color line one of these days."
111. DORIS FRYE
18:09:41 (18) DORIS FRYE ON CAMERA: "It's not been an easy fight for 92 years. But, it's been an interesting one. I'm pleased to have seen the changes."
112. MUSIC UP WITH GOSPEL CHOIR
Utah's African-American Voices is made possible by the George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles Foundation, the R. Harold Burton Foundation, the Lawrence T. and Janet T. Dee Foundation, and the Herbert I. and Elsa B. Michael Foundation.
Utah's African-American Voices is made possible by the George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles Foundation, the R. Harold Burton Foundation, the Lawrence T. and Janet T. Dee Foundation, and the Herbert I. and Elsa B. Michael Foundation.